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Benvenuti in queste pagine dedicate ad arte e letteratura. Amelia Carolina Sparavigna

Monday, 11 April 2011

Il Buddha dei Leoni


Il Buddha siede su un trono sorretto da tre leoni, che poggia a sua volta su un piedistallo fiancheggiato da due  devoti monaci. La veste monastica dalle pieghe accuratamente disegnate e priva di cintura rivela il corpo ben modellato. Il lembo dello scialle scende dalla spalla sinistra terminando in un doppia “coda di pesce”.
Il leone in questa iconografia evoca  il suo ruggito (simhanada) ossia la voce del Buddha che penetra lo spazio divulgando la Dottrina.
Museo Arte Orientale, Torino

Centenario - Emilio Salgari

Quest'anno è il centenario della morte di Emilio Salgari.
Chi non ha letto un libro o visto un film  il cui protagonista è Sandokan, la Tigre della Malesia?
Read more http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandokan

The Eye of Osiris

"The Eye of Osiris" is a novel written by Richard Austin Freeman (1862 - 1943). He was a British writer of detective stories, mostly featuring the medico-legal forensic investigator Dr Thorndyke. A large proportion of the Dr Thorndyke stories involve genuine points of scientific knowledge, from areas such as tropical medicine, metallurgy and toxicology. In this crime novel, Dr Thorndyke solved the mistery using a X-ray photography of a mummy.
"It was all clear enough so far. The peculiar sound that filled the air was the hum of the interrupter; the bulb was, of course, a Crookes' tube, and the red spot inside it, the glowing red-hot disc of the anti-cathode. Clearly an X-ray photograph was being made; but of what? I strained my eyes, peering into the gloom at the foot of the gallows, but though I could make out an elongated object lying on the floor directly under the bulb, I could not resolve the dimly seen shape into anything recognisable. Presently, however, Dr. Norbury supplied the clue. 'I am rather surprised,' said he, 'that you chose so composite an object as a mummy to begin on. I should have thought that a simpler object, such as a coffin or a wooden figure, would have been more instructive.' "
http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks06/0605551h.html
The novel is named from an Egyptian symbol, the Eye of Horus.
The Eye of Horus is an ancient Egyptian symbol of protection, royal power and good health. The eye is personified in the goddess Wadjet. The name Wadjet is derived from 'wadj' meaning 'green' hence 'the green one' and was known to the Greeks and Romans as 'uraeus' from the Egyptian 'iaret' meaning 'risen one' from the image of a cobra rising up in protection. More at Wiki
Wadjet was one of the earliest of Egyptian deities who later became associated with other goddesses such as Bast, Mut, and Hathor, who is also depicted with this eye. Burial amulets were often made in the shape of the Eye of Horus, to protect the owner in the afterlife and to ward off evil. Ancient Egyptian and Near Eastern sailors would frequently paint the symbol on the bow of their vessel to ensure safe sea travel (Charles Freeman, The Legacy of Ancient Egypt, Facts on File, Inc. 1997. p.91).
"Horus was the ancient Egyptian sky god who was usually depicted as a falcon. His right eye was associated with the sun Ra. The eye symbol represents the marking around a Peregrine Falcon's eye that includes the "teardrop" marking sometimes found below the eye."
It is interesting to note that, in the ancient egyptian calculus, the Eye Of Horus defined number one (1) = 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/8 + 1/16 + 1/32 + 1/64, by throwing away 1/64. The parts of the Eye were used to represent fractions.


Amulets on display at the Egyptian Museum, Torino

La Medusa di Wayland's Smithy

Un crop circle del 2009, che si vede con Google Maps. "Formazione anomala, e spettacolare. È stata riportata da tutti i media internazionali in quanto dotata di una rara quanto unica energia espressiva."


Wayland's Smithy is a Neolithic long barrow and chamber tomb site located near the Uffington White Horse and Uffington Castle, at Ashburyin the English county ofOxfordshire (historically in Berkshire).

Horse and dog - China

Riding with the dog


China
Museo Arte Orientale, Torino

Dedica al Giappone


Gyokusen - Schizzo
Museo Arte Orientale, Torino

Tiger - Tora



Paravento - Wind wall - Museo Arte Orientale - Torino
The tiger is revered not just in Japan but in the entire Asian adjoining societies. In Japan, the tiger (tora) is the emblem of the great aristocratic warriors, known as the samurai.
The tiger represents the virtue of courage.

Yashima Gakutei



Yashima Gakutei (1786-1868)
Dea con drago e sol nascente, Periodo Edo, c.1825
Xilografia su carta, nishiki-e con pigmenti metallici e gauffrage
Goddess with dragon and rising sun, Edo period, c.1825
Xylography on paper, nishili-e with metal pigments and gauffrage
Museo Arte Orientale, Torino


Nishiki-e (lit. "brocade picture") refers to Japanese multi-colored woodblock printing. It was invented in the 1760s, and perfected and popularized by the printmaker Suzuki Harunobu, who produced a great many nishiki-e prints between 1765 and his death five years later. Previously, most prints had been in black-and-white, colored by hand, or colored with the addition of one or two color ink blocks. A nishiki-e print is created by carving a separate woodblock for every color, and using them in a stepwise fashion. An engraver by the name of Kinroku is credited with the technical innovations that allowed the blocks of separate colors to fit perfectly onto the page, relative to others, in order to have the complete image.

Tenno - Fujiwara Period



Tenno, Uno dei Re Protettori
Legno di cipresso (hinoki), h. 119 cm 
Giappone, periodo Fujiwara, XII secolo
Museo Arte Orientale, Torino


Il museo possiede una coppia di statue (Ni-tenno, due tenno) dall’atteggiamento fiero che, calpestando figure mostruose, levano il braccio originariamente dotato di un’arma oggi perduta. Questa coppia è tratta dal gruppo dei Quattro Grandi Re degli Orienti (Shi-tenno) che la cosmologia buddhista colloca ai lati del Monte Meru. 
Come protettori, in Giappone gli Shi-tenno furono posti ai quattro angoli intorno all’immagine principale del tempio. Le due statue del MAO sono scolpite nella tecnica ichiboku zukuri in un singolo blocco di legno, salvo le braccia.

Shitennō and the four directions

The Shitennō are protectors of the four directions. They ward off evil, guard the nation, and protect the world from malicious spirits, hence the Japanese term Gose Shitennō 護世四天王, literally “four world-protecting deva kings.” Each represents a direction, season, color, virtue, and element. They originated in India but were later adopted into the Buddhist pantheon in China and Japan. They are venerated as temple guardians and protectors of the nation. In China, statues of the four are often placed near temple entrances, but in Japan, effigies of the four are more commonly placed around the central deity on the main altar. The four are commanded by Taishakuten, Lord of the Center. They are nearly always dressed in armor (yoroi 鎧), looking ferocious (funnusō 忿怒相), and carryingweapons or objects. They are also typically shown standing atop evil spirits (known as Jaki in Japan).
Shitennō iconography is related to the Four Celestial Emblems (dragon, red bird, tiger, turtle) of China, who also guard the four cardinal directions. In Japanese statuary, the Shitennō are almost always portrayed in animated warrior poses rather than static postures of ease or meditation...
Adapted from http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/shitenno.shtml
See also http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/buddhism.shtml

Tamon-Ten

Tamon-Ten
Legno scolpito e policromia
Giappone, inizi del periodo Edo, XVII sec.
Museo Arte Orientale

Tamon-Ten, guardiano del Nord, è il capo dei Re Celesti che sono preposti ai quattro punti cardinali e abitano il Monte Meru come protettori del Mondo e della Legge buddhista. A partire dal IX secolo divenne oggetto di un culto popolare in Giappone che lo rese quasi indipendente dagli altri tre Re Guardiani. Fu venerato in particolare come dio della prosperità. Ha il volto di un guerriero, è rivestito da una armatura  e siede su rocce stilizzate che simbolizzano il Monte Meru.

Buddha assiso



Buddha assiso - Gandhara

Le figure sono ricavate all’interno di un arco. L’arco poggia su due lesene con capitelli che richiamano le foglie di acanto dei capitelli corinzi. Sui capitelli sono collocati due grifoni dalle code fiammeggianti. Il Buddha è assiso, la gamba sinistra piegata a terra e il ginocchio destro sollevato su cui poggia il gomito destro. La mano destra mancante era sostegno al volto inclinato in atteggiamento pensoso. Al disopra della spalla destra del Buddha si scorge la figura di Vajrapani che impugna il simbolo del fulmine di Indra. Il fregio alla base del pannello presenta scene dalla vita di Shakyamuni e la sua figura emaciata dalle pratiche ascetiche intraprese prima dell’Illuminazione. 
Museo Arte Orientale, Torino 

Jizo - matrix of the earth

Jizo was a bodhisattva (bosatsu in Japanese), a man who achieved enlightenment but forsaked nirvana to help others find paradise. He was worshiped as the protector of those in distress, of children, of mothers in childbirth, and of travelers. Worship of the bodhisattva Jizo began in the eighth century with the importation of esoteric Buddhist practices from China. Jizo, whose name means "matrix of the earth," was revered as one of the Eight Great Bodhisattvas of the esoteric sect. Jizo and his counterpart, Kakuzo ("matrix of the void"), represent the union of the physical and metaphysical realms.
The Jizo figure is defined by his clothing, by the objects he holds, and by his physical attributes. His head is shaven, and he is dressed in monk's robes, a simple rectangle of cloth (kesa) tied in front over a longer skirt. In his left hand, Jizo holds a wish-granting jewel; he would have held a shakujo (jingle-staff) in his right. The shakujo was used to alert insects and small animals of his approach, so that he would not accidentally harm them. Jizo's idealized face and head-the perfectly proportioned features, third eye, elongated ears, and folds of skin at the neck-also show attributes of an enlightened being.
adapted from http://www.lacma.org/japaneseart/sculpture/jizo.htm

Jizo Bosatsu



Il bodhisattva Jizo
Legno laccato e dipinto
Giappone, fine del periodo Muromachi, XV-XVI sec. 

Jizo Bosatsu, il bodhisattva Jizo, è venerato in Giappone come colui che interviene a trarre i fedeli dagli inferni in cui possono essere caduti. Nell’iconografia del Buddhismo giapponese è ritratto nelle vesti di un monaco dalla testa rasata, munito del bastone del pellegrino e del “gioiello che esaudisce tutti i desideri”. L’assenza di corona e ornamenti è compensata dall’eleganza regale del manto e della tunica decorati con ricami dorati di ispirazione cinese e centro-asiatica. La statua faceva parte della collezione del barone Wilhelm von Bode.